Elena Carletti is Professor of Finance at Bocconi University and founder and Scientific Director of the Florence School of Banking and Finance at the European University Institute. She is a member of Board of Directors of Unicredit SpA and a member of the Advisory Scientific Committee of the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). She is also research professor at the Bundesbank, a member of the Expert Panel on banking supervision for the European Parliament, a member of the Scientific Committee “Paolo Baffi Lecture” at the Bank of Italy, a member of Bruegel Scientific Committee, Research Fellow at CEPR, and a Fellow of the Finance Theory Group, CESifo, IGIER, and Wharton Financial Institutions Center.