Nicoletta Berardi is a Research Economist at Banque de France. In 2020 she has been in secondment at DG Research of the ECB. Before joining Banque de France in 2010, she worked as Research Associate at the OECD and as Consultant at the World Bank. She holds a HDR in Economics from Sorbonne University, a Ph.D. in Economics from Toulouse School of Economics and a B.Sc. in Economics and Social Sciences from Bocconi University.