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Title: Frontier Culture: The Roots and Persistence of Rugged Individualism in the United States

Author(s): Samuel Bazzi, Martin Fiszbein and Mesay Gebresilasse

Publication Date: October 2017

Keyword(s): American Frontier, Culture, Individualism, Persistence and Preferences for Redistribution

Programme Area(s): Development Economics and Economic History

Abstract: The presence of a westward-moving frontier of settlement shaped early U.S. history. In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner famously argued that the American frontier fostered individualism. We investigate the Frontier Thesis and identify its long-run implications for culture and politics. We track the frontier throughout the 1790‚??1890 period and construct a novel, county-level measure of total frontier experience (TFE). Historically, frontier locations had distinctive demographics and greater individualism. Long after the closing of the frontier, counties with greater TFE exhibit more pervasive individualism and opposition to redistribution. This pattern cuts across known divides in the U.S., including urban‚??rural and north‚??south. We provide suggestive evidence on the roots of frontier culture: selective migration, an adaptive advantage of self-reliance, and perceived opportunities for upward mobility through effort. Overall, our findings shed new light on the frontier's persistent legacy of rugged individualism.

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Bibliographic Reference

Bazzi, S, Fiszbein, M and Gebresilasse, M. 2017. 'Frontier Culture: The Roots and Persistence of Rugged Individualism in the United States'. London, Centre for Economic Policy Research.