DP12220 Facts, Alternative Facts, and Fact Checking in Times of Post-Truth Politics

Author(s): Oscar Barrera, Sergei Guriev, Emeric Henry, Ekaterina Zhuravskaya
Publication Date: August 2017
Date Revised: December 2019
Keyword(s): alternative facts, elections, fact checking, fake news, voting
Programme Areas: Public Economics, Development Economics
Link to this Page: cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=12220

How effective is fact checking in countervailing "alternative facts," i.e., misleading statements by politicians? In a randomized online experiment during the 2017 French presidential election campaign, we subjected subgroups of 2480 French voters to alternative facts by the extreme-right candidate, Marine Le Pen, and/or corresponding facts about the European refugee crisis from official sources. We find that: (i) alternative facts are highly persuasive; (ii) fact checking improves factual knowledge of voters (iii) but it does not affect policy conclusions or support for the candidate; (iv) exposure to facts alone does not decrease support for the candidate, even though voters update their knowledge. We find evidence consistent with the view that at least part of the effect can be explained by raising salience of the immigration issue.