DP16097 QUANTIFYING MARKET POWER AND BUSINESS DYNAMISM IN THE MACROECONOMY
|Author(s):||Jan De Loecker, Jan Eeckhout, Simon Mongey|
|Publication Date:||May 2021|
|Keyword(s):||business dynamism, Endogenous Markups, Labor Share, Market Power in the Aggregate Economy, market structure, Passthrough, reallocation, Technological change, Wage stagnation|
|JEL(s):||C6, D4, D5, L1|
|Programme Areas:||Macroeconomics and Growth|
|Link to this Page:||cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=16097|
We propose a general equilibrium model with oligopolistic output markets where two channels can cause a change in market power: (i) technology, via changes to productivity shocks and the cost of en- try, (ii) market structure, via changes to the number of potential competitors. First, we disentangle these narratives by matching data on markups, labor reallocation and costs, finding that both channels are necessary to account for the data. Second, we show that changes in technology and market structure yield positive welfare effects through reallocation and selection, but off-setting negative effects from dead- weight loss and overhead. Overall, welfare is 9 percent lower in 2016 than in 1980. Third, the changes we identify explain and decompose cross-sectional patterns in declining business dynamism, declining equilibrium wages and labor force participation via reallocation toward larger, more productive firms.