This week from CEPR: June 24
Highlights from some of the latest research reports published in the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) network’s long-running series of discussion papers, as well as some other recent CEPR publications.
Also, links to some of the latest columns on Vox, the Centre’s policy portal, which provides ‘research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists’.
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ARTISTS SUFFERED SUBSTANTIAL AND UNEQUAL INCOME LOSSES DURING COVID: Evidence from Germany
COVID-19 IMPACT ON ARTISTIC INCOME
Alexander Cuntz and Matthias Sahli
Issue 82 Covid Economics | 23 June 2021
Based on the latest available data released by official sources in March 2021, a new study by Alexander Cuntz and Matthias Sahli in Issue 82 of CEPR’s Covid Economics assesses the impact of the pandemic crisis on self-employed income from artistic practice and among artists located in Germany. Among the findings:
- The pandemic crisis impacts artists in creative and cultural sectors differently, net income losses ranging between 2 to 13%.
- Musicians and performing artists are among the most vulnerable groups in terms of income losses in 2020, and that some losses may depend on the specific non-pharmaceutical, public intervention implemented in German states.
- Writers such as self-employed and freelance journalists, authors or other publicists in this artistic group are exceptional with regard to their income losses, and were able to maintain or slightly increase their self-employed income in the 2020 pandemic year. Most likely due to the fact they were able to continue their work online as theatres and concert venues closed.
- Female writers seem to outperform trends among male counterparts in 2020 - women in the sector see income growth over their 2019 levels, while men are losing some of their income over the same period.
- Younger writers also tend to outperform trends, possibly due to their reliance on digital sources in the first place and thus may be more resilient to the impact of the crisis.
- Gender income differences and differences at different career stages largely prevail over the crisis and predate the 2020 outbreak.
- Artists in rural areas are no less affected than those in urban areas.
ARE CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES POLITICALLY COSTLY?
Are climate change policies politically costly?
Davide Furceri, Michael Ganslmeier, and Jonathan D. Ostry
CEPR Discussion Paper No. 16273 | June 2021
Are policies designed to avert climate change (Climate Change Policies, or CCPs) politically costly? Using data on governmental popular support and the OECD's Environmental Stringency Index, a new CEPR study by Davide Furceri, Michael Ganslmeier and Jonathan D. Ostry find that CCPs are not necessarily politically costly, but policy design matters:
- First, only market-based CCPs (such as emission taxes) generate negative effects on popular support.
- Second, the effects are muted in countries where non-green (dirty) energy is a relatively small input into production.
- Third, political costs are not significant when CCPs are implemented during periods of low oil prices, generous social insurance and low inequality.
CHILD MALTREATMENT WAS SUBSTANTIALLY UNDERREPORTED DURING THE PANDEMIC: Evidence from Colorado
UNDERREPORTING CHILD MALTREATMENT DURING THE PANDEMIC: Evidence from Colorado
Issue 82 Covid Economics | 23 June 2021
A new study by Alexa Prettyman, in Issue 82 of CEPR’s Covid Economics, uses real-time data from Colorado to provide an updated national estimate on the number of unreported allegations and victims of child maltreatment for the entire year. The results indicate that millions of allegations in the United States may have gone unreported, potentially impacting over 100,000 victims during the year. The study also estimates how child maltreatment incidences and reporting changed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, school closures, and the stay-at-home order. Three main findings emerge:
- First, in Colorado, the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent policy responses resulted in a 15% decline in reporting in 2020, compared to 2019. The biggest decline occurred between April and June as a result of the stay-at-home order and initial shift to virtual schooling; however, delayed school openings and continued spreading of the Coronavirus kept reporting below pre-pandemic averages for the remainder of 2020. Using a model that accounts for economic hardships and harmful coping strategies brought about by the pandemic, an estimated 38,800 referrals went unreported and 2,200 victims went unnoticed. Applying these numbers to the whole country while taking into account Colorado’s unusually high reporting rate, an estimated 1.38 million referrals and 112,000 victims may have gone unreported across the country during 2020.
- The second key finding is that the stay-at-home order, school closings, and COVID-19 national emergency all substantially reduced child maltreatment referrals and screened-in reports. However, the study finds no evidence that more severe child maltreatment took place due to the pandemic.
- Thirdly, the referral rate for neglect decreased by less in counties that were more likely to comply with the stay-at-home order relative to counties that were less likely to comply. This result provides suggestive evidence of parental burnout and is supported by early research in the medical literature.
These findings quantify another hardship brought about by the pandemic, underreporting, and underscore the role mandatory reporters play in detecting child maltreatment.
The newly launched CEPR Competition Policy RPN is organizing a discussion between senior antitrust regulators, privacy experts, and economists. In the first panel, privacy and data protection experts will discuss some key insights for antitrust enforcers. The second panel will discuss with antitrust leaders how these ideas are progressing in practice.
Cristina Caffarra & Greg Crawford tell Tim Phillips about the launch event of the CEPR Competition Policy RPN, which was held on June 17 2021
You can see a recording of the event here.