Discussion paper

DP11106 Identifying Ideology: Experimental Evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan

Identifying the role of intrinsic, ideological motivation in political behavior is confounded by agents' consequential aims and social concerns. We present results from two experiments that implement a methodology isolating Pakistani men's intrinsic motives for expressing anti-American ideology, in a context with clearly-specified financial costs, but minimal consequential or social considerations. Over one-quarter of subjects forgo around one-fifth of a day's wage to avoid anonymously checking a box indicating gratitude toward the U.S. government, thus revealing anti-Americanism. We find that ideological expression responds to financial and social incentives, and that measured ideology predicts membership in a major anti-American political party.


Bursztyn, L, M Callen, B Ferman, S Gulzar, A Hasanain and N Yuchtman (eds) (2016), “DP11106 Identifying Ideology: Experimental Evidence on Anti-Americanism in Pakistan”, CEPR Press Discussion Paper No. 11106. https://cepr.org/publications/dp11106