Discussion paper

DP13474 Child Penalties Across Countries: Evidence and Explanations

This paper provides evidence on child penalties in female and male earnings in different countries. The estimates are based on event studies around the birth of the first child, using the specification proposed by Kleven et al. (2018). The analysis reveals some striking similarities in the qualitative effects of children across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. We discuss the potential role of family policies (parental leave and child care provision) and gender norms in explaining the observed differences.


Kleven, H, C Landais, J Posch, A Steinhauer and J Zweimüller (2019), ‘DP13474 Child Penalties Across Countries: Evidence and Explanations‘, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 13474. CEPR Press, Paris & London. https://cepr.org/publications/dp13474