DP14893 The Micro and Macro Dynamics of Capital Flows
We study empirically and theoretically the effects of international capital flows on resource allocation. Using the universe of firms in Hungary, we show that financial openness triggers input-cost and consumption channels, with the latter dominant and reallocating resources toward high expenditure elasticity activities in the short run. A multi-sector heterogeneous firm trade model replicates these dynamics. In the long-run, the model predicts that resources will shift towards manufacturing exports to service debt. Owing to endogenous terms of trade dynamics, countries face a trade-off between the speed of convergence and their long-run capital stock; thus, financial openness can lead to welfare losses.