Discussion paper

DP14978 Stackelberg Independence

The standard model of sequential capacity choices is the Stackelberg quantity leadership model with linear demand. I show that under the standard assumptions, leaders' actions are informative about market conditions and independent of leaders' beliefs about the arrivals of followers. However, this Stackelberg independence property relies on all standard assumptions being satisfied. It fails to hold whenever the demand function is non-linear, marginal cost is not constant, goods are differentiated, firms are non-identical, or there are any externalities. I show that small deviations from the linear demand assumption may make the leaders' choices completely uninformative.


Hinnosaar, T (2020), ‘DP14978 Stackelberg Independence‘, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 14978. CEPR Press, Paris & London. https://cepr.org/publications/dp14978