Bernard Hoekman is Professor and Director of Global Economics in the Global Governance Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute; and a CEPR Research Fellow. Prior positions include Director of the International Trade Department (2008-13) and Research Manager of the trade team in the Development Research Group (2000-2008), both at the World Bank. He worked as an Economist in the GATT Secretariat during the Uruguay round of negotiations. His research focuses on trade and development, international trade agreements, trade in services and international regulatory cooperation. He is a graduate of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan and is a Senior Associate of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey.