Elizabeth Brainerd is the Susan and Barton Winokur Professor of Economics and Women’s and Gender Studies at Brandeis University. Her research focuses on labor and health economics, with particular interest in understanding the social and health consequences of the transition to capitalism in formerly socialist countries. Her work has examined changes in the gender wage gap and wage inequality in eastern Europe, the impact of World War II on marriage and fertility of Russian women, and the impact of economic transition on mortality in post-socialist countries. The scope of her work also includes a study of the impact of globalization on relative women’s wages in the United States. Current research projects include an analysis of the growing life expectancy gap between U.S. and European women, and an examination of the causes of unbalanced sex ratios in the former Soviet Union. She received her B.A. in Economics and Russian from Bowdoin College and her Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University. Prior to her appointment at Brandeis, Brainerd was a Professor of Economics at Williams College.