Gilles Saint-Paul is Professor at Ecole Normale Superieure-PSL, Paris School of Economics, and holds a visiting position at NYU-Abu Dhabi. He did his PhD at MIT (1987‑90) with Olivier Blanchard and Michael Piore. He has published seven books and authored numerous articles in the top journals including a number of path breaking contributions on the political economy of labour market reform. He is a CEPR Research Fellow. His research has explored the factors influencing technological progress and growth, the political economy of unemployment and how information technology affects wage inequality. He has published The Tyranny of Utility (Princeton University Press, 2011) which discusses the dangers for individual freedom of behavioral social science when used by paternalistic governments. More recently, he has worked on the political economy of beliefs and ideologies and on evolutionary aspects of macroeconomic fluctuations.