Lorenzo Bini Smaghi is chairman of Societé Générale, and Italgas. He is a visiting scholar at Harvard's Weatherhead Center for International Affairs and senior fellow at LUISS School of European political economy. He is member of the Board of Tages Holding and chairs the Italian Chapter of the Alumni of the University of Chicago. From June 2005 to December 2011, he was a member of the executive board of the European Central Bank. He holds a bachelor's degree in economics from the Université Catholique de Louvain in Belgium, a master's degree from the University of Southern California and a doctorate from the University of Chicago.