Discussion paper

DP17264 Implicit Benefits and Financing

Social relationship and business connections create implicit benefits between borrowers and lenders. We model how implicit benefits and repayment enforcement costs influence credit allocation, cost, and renegotiation. The optimal solution illustrates that financing with implicit benefits can in many circumstances achieve lower financing costs, higher managerial effort, and better economic outcomes for both the borrower and the lender. This result explains the continuing expansion of alternative financing despite advanced formal financial intermediation, the rise of corporate insider debt, and joint ownership of debt and equity. The growing size and complexity of projects and changes in community relationships explain the expansion of bank financing.


Allen, F, M Qian and J Xie (2022), ‘DP17264 Implicit Benefits and Financing‘, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 17264. CEPR Press, Paris & London. https://cepr.org/publications/dp17264