François Bourguignon is director of studies at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Originally trained as a statistician, he earned a Ph.D. in economics at the University of Western Ontario and a Ph.D. at the University of Orleans. He held the position of director of the Paris School of Economics from 2007 to the end of January 2013. His theoretical and empirical work focuses on income distribution and redistribution in developing and developed countries. He is the author of several books and numerous articles in international economic journals. He has received during his career several scientific distinctions and taught in several foreign universities. He has extensive experience of consulting with several governments and international organizations. From 2003 to 2007, he was chief economist and first vice president of the World Bank in Washington.