Discussion paper

DP18853 Stock Market Participation, Inequality, and Monetary Policy

Recent literature has shown that the fraction of liquidity-constrained households in the population critically determines the mix of transmission channels of monetary policy. In this paper, we bring a different but important dimension of heterogeneity to the forefront: stock market participation. We show that the stock market participation rate not only shapes the mix of policy channels, but also heavily affects the aggregate responses. This happens as direct rebalancing effects and indirect equilibrium effects into investment are both increasing in the number of stock market participants, reinforcing each other. We show this in a quantitative New Keynesian model designed to account for the population share of stock market participants, their position in the income and wealth distribution, and their saving rates. The model implies that, as stock market participation has increased since the 1980s, the power of monetary policy on the real economy has strengthened considerably.


Melcangi, D and V Sterk (2024), ‘DP18853 Stock Market Participation, Inequality, and Monetary Policy‘, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 18853. CEPR Press, Paris & London. https://cepr.org/publications/dp18853