Martin Schindler has been Deputy Director of the JVI since September 2014. Previously a Senior Economist in the European Department of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), he was part of the surveillance teams for Sweden, Germany and the euro area. He also contributed to the European Department's agenda on jobs and growth and is the lead editor of a recent IMF book on Jobs and Growth: Supporting the European Recovery. Prior to that, Martin worked in the IMF's African and Research departments and, during 2011-2013, he was Senior Economist at the Joint Vienna Institute.He studied business and economics in Germany, Italy and the USA, and holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania (USA) and a Diplom-Kaufmann from the UniversitÃ¤t des Saarlandes (Germany). He has published in the fields of monetary and labour economics, economic growth, and financial integration, including in the Journal of Monetary Economics, the Journal of International Economics, the European Economic Review, and the IMF Economic Review. Martin is a Policy Fellow at IZA, a German labour market think tank.