Associate Professor of Economics at the Department of Management, Economics, and Quantitative Methods at the University of Bergamo, Italy. Francesco is also Research Associate at the Danish Institute for Advanced Study (D-IAS), CEPR Research Fellow, CESifo Research Affiliate, and CAGE Research Associate. His research interests are in the fields of Economic History, Growth and Development, and Political Economy. In particular, he studies the relationship between education and fertility, the role of human capital in innovation and economic growth, the political and socioeconomic factors that affect the provision of public education. He is a member of the editorial board of Explorations in Economic History and of the Rivista di Storia Economica. He has held visiting positions at the University of Munich, Brown University, University of Mannheim, and University of Bayreuth.