Discussion paper

DP11989 The New Keynesian Cross

The New Keynesian (NK) Cross is a graphical and analytical apparatus for heterogeneous-agent (HANK) models expressing key aggregate demand objects - MPC and multipliers - as functions of heterogeneity parameters. It affords analytical insights into monetary, fiscal, and forward guidance multipliers, and replicates the aggregate implications of quantitative HANK. The key parameter - the constrained agents - income elasticity to aggregate income - depends on fiscal redistribution: when it is larger (smaller) than one, the effects of policies and shocks are amplified (dampened). With uninsurable idiosyncratic uncertainty, this translates intertemporally - through compounding (discounting) in the aggregate Euler equation - into further amplification (dampening) of future shocks.


Bilbiie, F (2017), “DP11989 The New Keynesian Cross”, CEPR Press Discussion Paper No. 11989. https://cepr.org/publications/dp11989