DP18695 Firm Heterogeneity, Capital Misallocation and Optimal Monetary Policy
This paper analyzes the link between monetary policy and capital misallocation in a New Keynesian model with heterogeneous firms and financial frictions. In the model, firms with a high return to capital increase their investment more strongly in response to a monetary policy expansion, thus reducing misallocation. This feature creates a new time-inconsistent incentive for the central bank to engineer an unexpected monetary expansion to temporarily reduce misallocation. However, price stability is the optimal timeless response to demand, financial, or TFP shocks. Finally, we present firm-level evidence supporting the theoretical mechanism.