Distinguished Fellows

 

In 2019, CEPR established a new category of affiliation. CEPR Distinguished Fellows are eminent economists who enjoy a high standing in the profession. They have typically had a research career; have held office in high level policy institutions; and have rendered service to CEPR and the profession. Distinguished Fellow appointments are effective for a period of six years, renewable. 

Distinguished Fellows can participate in research and policy conferences and advise CEPR leadership. 

  • Charles Bean, Professor of Economics, London School of Economics. Chairman of the Board of Trustees, CEPR. Former Deputy Governor, Bank of England.
  • Lorenzo Bini Smaghi, Chairman, Société Générale.
  • Laurence Boone, Chief Economist, OECD.
  • Claudia Buch, Vice-President, Deutsche Bundesbank. 
  • Vítor Constâncio, President, Council of the Lisbon School of Economics & Management (ISEG), University of Lisbon. Former Vice President, European Central Bank.
  • Linda Goldberg, Senior Vice President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Pinelopi Goldberg, Elihu Professor of Economics, Yale University. Chief Economist, World Bank.
  • Martin Hellwig, Director, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods. 
  • Pascal Lamy, Chair, Paris Peace Forum. Former Director-General, WTO.
  • Dr. Catherine L. Mann, Global Chief Economist, Citi.
  • Mario Monti, President, Bocconi University. Former Prime Minister of Italy.
  • Maurice Obstfeld, University of California, Berkeley, PIIE.
  • Lucas Papademos, Former Prime Minister of Greece. Former Vice-President, European Central Bank.
  • Adam Posen, President, Peterson Institute for International Economics. Former MPC member, Bank of England.
  • Peter Praet, Former Chief Economist, European Central Bank.
  • Lucrezia Reichlin, Professor of Economics, London Business School.
  • Christina Romer, Class of 1957-Garff B. Wilson Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley. Former Chair, Council of Economic Advisors.
  • Minouche Shafik, Director, London School of Economics and Political Science. Former Deputy Governor, Bank of England. 
  • Jean-Claude Trichet, Former President, European Central Bank. Former Governor, Banque de France.
  • Axel Weber, Chairman of the Board of Directors, UBS. Former President, Deutsche Bundesbank.

Introducing CEPR's Initial Distinguished Fellows

 


Charles Bean

Charles Bean is a Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics and a member of the Budget Responsibility Committee at the Office for Budget Responsibility. From 2000 to 2014, he served at the Bank of England as, successively, Executive Director and Chief Economist, and then Deputy Governor for Monetary Policy, serving on both the Monetary Policy and Financial Policy Committees. He also represented the Bank in international fora, such as G7 and G20. Before joining the Bank, he was a member of faculty at LSE and has also worked at HM Treasury. He has served as Managing Editor of the Review of Economic Studies, was President of the Royal Economic Society from 2013 to 2015 and is Chairman of the Centre for Economic Policy Research. He was knighted in 2014 for services to monetary policy and central banking and recently undertook a major review of the quality, delivery and governance of UK economic statistics on behalf of the UK government. He holds a PhD from MIT. 

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers, Books and Reports as well as VoxEU columns, videos and talks by Charles Bean using the following links:

Lorenzo Bini Smaghi


An Italian national, with a degree in Economic Sciences from the Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium and a Ph.D in Economic Sciences from the University of Chicago, Lorenzo Bini Smaghi began his career in 1983 as an Economist at the Research Department of the Banca d’Italia. In 1994, he was appointed Head of the Policy Division of the European Monetary Institute. In October 1998, he became Director General of International Financial Relations in Italy’s Economy and Finance Ministry. He was Chairman of SACE from 2001 to 2005. From June 2005 to December 2011, he was member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank. From 2012 to 2016, he was Chairman of the Board of Directors of SNAM in Italy. From 2016 to 4th April 2019, he was Chairman of the Board of Directors of Italgas in Italy. He is currently Chairman of the Board of Directors of Societe Generale, a post he has held since 2015.

You can find VoxEU columns by Lorenzo Bini Smaghi using the following link:


Laurence Boone

Laurence Boone is the OECD Chief Economist and Head of the Economics Department since July 2018. Ms. Boone ensures that the Department is at the forefront of Economic thinking and will coordinate the work of the Country Studies and Policy branches to create new opportunities and enhance synergies and co operation with the whole of the OECD, including through contributions to horizontal projects.

Ms. Boone also supervises the contributions of the Economics Department to the New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) and Inclusive Growth (IG) initiatives. She is the Secretary General’s spokesperson on economic issues and serves as the OECD Representative at the Deputies’ meetings of the G20 Finance Track.

Before joining the OECD, Ms. Boone was the Chief Economist at AXA Group and Global Head of Multi-Asset Client Solutions & Trading and Securities Finance, AXA Investment Managers, France. She was an independent director of Kering's board and remains a member of the Strategic committee of Agence France Trésor, the French National Debt Office.
Prior to this, she was Sherpa and Special Advisor for Multilateral and European Economic & Financial Affairs to the President of the French Republic (2014-2016); Chief Economist and Managing Director at Bank of America Merrill Lynch (2011-2014); Managing Director and Chief Economist France, Barclays Capital (2004-2011); Economist, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1998-2004); Economist, CEPII, France (1996-1998) and Quantitative Analyst for Merrill Lynch Asset Management, UK (1995-1996).

She is a member of the Cercle des Economistes as well as of SDA Bocconi.

Author of numerous articles, she taught at the École Polytechnique, ENSAE (the National School of Statistics) and the École Normale Supérieure and Sciences Po (Paris School of International Affairs).

Ms. Boone, a French national, has a PhD in Applied Econometrics from the London Business School (UK); a MSc in Econometrics & Macroeconomic Modelling from Reading University (UK); a Master's Degree in Economics from Université Paris X Nanterre (FRA) and a postgraduate diploma (DEA) in Modelling and Quantitative Analysis from University Paris X Nanterre (FRA).

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns and talks by Laurence Boone using the following links:

Claudia Buch


Professor Claudia Buch, who joined the Bundesbank in 2014, is Vice-President of the Deutsche Bundesbank and head of its Directorates General Financial Stability, Statistics, and Internal Audit. She is the Bundesbank’s G20 and G7 Central Bank Deputy and a member of the German Financial Stability Committee. Before joining the Bundesbank, Claudia Buch was President of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) (2013-2014) and Professor of Economics at Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (2013-2014) and Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (2004-2013). She chaired the Scientific Advisory Council at the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Technology (2008-2012) and was a member of the German Council of Economic Experts (2012-2014). Her previous posts also include Scientific Director at the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IAW), Tübingen (2005-2013) and researcher at the Institut für Weltwirtschaft in Kiel (1992-2013). Claudia Buch was awarded a PhD and her habilitation (post-doctorate degree) by the University of Kiel and studied Economics at the University of Bonn.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns by Claudia Buch using the following links:


Vítor Constâncio

Vítor Constâncio is a professor at the School of Economics & Business Administration of the University of Navarra. From June 2010 to May 2018, he served as Vice-President of the European Central Bank. He was Governor of the Banco de Portugal from 1985 to 1986 and from February 2000 to May 2010. He graduated in Economics from the Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Before having been appointed as Governor of the Banco de Portugal, he was Executive Director of the Banco Português de Investimento (1995-2000) and Non-Executive Director of the Electricidade de Portugal (EDP), the Portuguese national power utility (1998-2000). He was Invited Senior Professor of Economics at the Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão from 1989 to June 2010, culminating a long academic career. 

You can find VoxEU columns and videos by Vítor Constâncio using the following link:

Linda Goldberg


Linda Goldberg is a Senior Vice President at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Linda's main areas of expertise are global banking, international capital flows, international macroeconomics and the international roles of currencies. An active speaker at events around the work, Linda publishes extensively in related journals. Linda is the co-chair of the International Banking Research Network(IBRN), a Bank for International Settlements Technical Advisor, Distinguished Fellow of CEPR, and a Research Associate of NBER. Linda is co-editor of the International Journal of Central Banking and currently on the editorial boards of the Journal of Financial Intermediation and the Journal of Financial Services Research. She serves on the board of the Central Banking Economic Research Association (CEBRA), the advisory board of the Academic Female Finance Committee of the American Finance Association (AFFECT), and the board of the Association of Princeton Graduate Alumni. From 2012 through 2016 Linda worked with the World Economic Forum, including as chair and vice chair of the Council on Global Economic Imbalances and member of the Council on the International Monetary System. Linda has a PhD in Economics from Princeton University, and a B.A. in Mathematics and Economics from Queens College, City University of New York, where she graduated with Honors of Phi Beta Kappa and Summa Cum Laude.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns and videos by Linda Goldberg using the following links:


Pinelopi Goldberg

Pinelopi “Penny” Koujianou Goldberg is the Elihu Professor of Economics at Yale University. She is currently on public service leave from Yale while serving as the Chief Economist of the World Bank Group. Goldberg is President elect of the Econometric Society (for 2021) and has previously served as Vice-President of the American Economic Association. From 2011-2017 she was Editor-in-Chief of the American Economic Review. She is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a recipient of Guggenheim Memorial Foundation and Sloan Research Fellowships, and recipient of the Bodossaki Prize in Social Sciences.  She holds a Ph.D in Economics from Stanford University and a Diplom in Economics from the University of Freiburg, Germany. 

Goldberg is an applied microeconomist drawn to policy-relevant questions in trade and development.  She has exploited a broad set of methodological approaches - ranging from estimation of structural industry equilibrium models typical of the Industrial Organization literature to reduced form techniques - to provide insights into such diverse topics as the determinants and effects of trade policies, intellectual property rights protection in developing countries, exchange rate passthrough, pricing to market, and international price discrimination. Her most recent research examines the resurgence of protectionism in the U.S., and the interplay between informality and trade liberalization in the presence of labor market frictions. Since joining the World Bank, she has been involved in the Bank’s efforts to improve the measurement of human capital in developing countries. 

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns by Pinelopi Goldberg using the following links:

Martin Hellwig


Martin Hellwig was appointed Director at the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn, and Professor of Economics, University of Bonn (Courtesy Appointment) in 2004. 

He holds a diploma in economics from the University of Heidelberg (1970) and a doctorate in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1973). 

His academic career involved a postdoctoral year at Stanford University, three years (1974-77) as Assistant Professor of Economics at Princeton University, ten years as Associate Professor (1977-79) and Professor of Economics (1979-87) at the University of Bonn in Germany, nine years (1987-1996) at the University of Basle, Switzerland, and another eight years at the University of Mannheim (1996-2004). 

He has also held visiting positions at the Université Catholique de Louvain, the London School of Economics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and Harvard University. 

Prof. Hellwig was the first Chair and is currently Vice Chair of the Advisory Scientifc Committee of the European Systemic Risk Board, one of the institutions the European Union created after the financial crisis. He is also a Member of the Economic Advisory Group on Competition Policy of the European Commission, DG Comp, and of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the German Ministry of Economic Affairs. In the past, he has been a member and Chairman of the German Monopolies Commission and, more recently, of two ad hoc advisory committees in Germany, dealing with government loans and loan guarantees to nonfinancial companies and with exit strategies for the government’s participations in banks in the financial crisis. 

He is also a former President of the European Economic Association and of the Verein für Socialpolitik (German Economic Association), an Honorary Member of the American Economic Association, a Fellow of the Econometric Society and a former Co-Editor of Econometrica. His research interests involve financial markets and institutions, corporate governance, public economics, network industries and competition policy, foundations of monetary theory and macroeconomics and anything else that looks intriguing.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns by Martin Hellwig using the following links:


Pascal Lamy

From September 2005 to August 2013, Pascal Lamy served for two consecutive terms as General Director of the World Trade Organization (WTO).  A committed European and member of the French Socialist party, he was Chief of Staff for the President of the European Commission, Jacques Delors from 1985 to 1994. He then joined the Credit Lyonnais as CEO until 1999, before returning to Brussels as European Trade Commissioner until 2004. Mr. Lamy holds degrees from HEC School of Management, the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (IEP) and the Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA). 

Pascal Lamy was appointed in 2019, President of the Paris Peace Forum. He shares his other activities between the Jacques Delors Institute (President emeritus), the presidency of the World Committee on Tourism Ethics, the presidency of the French Committee of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) and in as well as various mandates or missions related to international affairs. He is also President of the Board of Directors of the Musiciens du Louvre  (Orchestra of Marc Minkowski), member of the Board of Directors of the Fondation nationale des Sciences politiques, the Mo Ibrahim Foundation, the Thomson Reuters Founders Share Company, Transparency International France and the Center on Regulation in Europe (CERRE); senior advisor to the Brunswick Group, to Trade Mark East Africa (TMEA) and to the World Trade Board, member of the Advisory Boards of Transparency International, the Oxford Martin School. He is affiliate Professor at HEC and at the China International Business School (CEIBS Shanghaï) and CEPR Distinguished Fellow. He is currently also member of the Global Future Council on regional Governance at the World Economic Forum and member of the Orientation Committee of the Colbert Foundation.  

Pascal Lamy is author of various books and reports on global governance, Europe and international trade. His latest publications are:  Oxford Martin Commission: Now for the long term (2013); The Geneva Consensus (Cambridge University Press, 2013); Quand la France s’éveillera (Odile Jacob, 2014), Où va le monde? (Odile Jacob, 2017) 

Pascal Lamy also lectures to the benefit of Institut Jacques Delors among other engagments, on issues related to globalisation, global governance, international trade, international economics, regional integration, European and French issues.

You can find VoxEU columns and blogs by Pascal Lamy using the following link:

Catherine L. Mann


Dr. Catherine L. Mann is Managing Director and Global Chief Economist, joining Citibank in February 2018.  She is responsible for thought leadership, research guidance of a global team of economists, and cross-fertilization of research across macroeconomics, fixed-income, spread products, and equities. Prior to this position, she was Chief Economist at the OECD, where she also was Director of the Economics Department and was Finance Deputy to the G20 (2014-2017). Prior to the OECD, she held the Barbara '54 and Richard M. Rosenberg Professor of Global Finance at the International Business School, Brandeis University, where she also directed the Rosenberg Institute of Global Finance (2006-2014). She spent 20-plus years in Washington, DC (1984-2006) where her positions included Senior Fellow at the Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Economist, Senior Economist, and Assistant Director in the International Finance Division at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors;  and shorter stints as Senior International Economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers and Adviser to the Chief Economist at the World Bank.   

Dr. Mann received her PhD in Economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her undergraduate degree is from Harvard University.  Her written work includes more than 85 scholarly articles and seven books primarily on the topics of US external imbalances and the dollar; and information technology and services trade in global markets.

You can find VoxEU videos by Catherine Mann using the following link:


Mario Monti

Mario Monti is President of Bocconi University and Senator for life of the Republic of Italy.  

He was Prime Minister of Italy (November 2011-April 2013) and Minister of Economy and Finance (November 2011-July 2012). 

He served for ten years as a member of the European Commission, in charge of the Internal Market, Financial Services and Tax Policy (1995-1999), then of Competition (1999-2004). 

He is Member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politique, Chairman of the first Advisory Group to Transparency International EU, and Honorary President of Bruegel, the European think-tank he founded in 2005. 

From February 2014 to January 2017, he was Chairman of the High-level Group on Own Resources of the European Union, in preparation of the EU Multiannual Financial Framework 2021-2027. Since May 2018, he has chaired the high-level search committee to find the next president of the European Research Council, which was established by the Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation, Carlos Moedas.  

Born in Varese, Italy, in 1943, he graduated from Bocconi University and pursued graduate studies at Yale University.

You can find VoxEU videos by Mario Monti using the following link:

Maurice Obstfeld


Maurice Obstfeld is the Class of 1958 Professor of Economics and former Chair of the Department of Economics (1998-2001) at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1991, and non-resident senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE). He previously taught at Harvard University (1989–90), the University of Pennsylvania (1986–89), and Columbia University (1979–86).  

In addition to his academic positions, Obstfeld served at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as economic counsellor and director of the research department (2015–18) and as a member of the US President's Council of Economic Advisors (2014–15). Obstfeld was an honorary adviser to the Bank of Japan's Institute of Monetary and Economic Studies (2002–14) and has consulted and taught at the IMF, the World Bank, and numerous central banks around the world. 

Obstfeld has received Tilburg University's Tjalling Koopmans Asset Award, the John von Neumann Award of the Rajk Laszlo College for Advanced Studies (Budapest), and the Kiel Institute's Bernhard Harms Prize. He has given a number of distinguished lectures, including the American Economic Association's annual Richard T. Ely Lecture, the L. K. Jha Memorial Lecture of the Reserve Bank of India, and the Frank Graham Memorial Lecture at Princeton University. Obstfeld has served on both the executive committee and as vice president of the American Economic Association. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

He is the co-author of two leading textbooks on international economics, International Economics (11th edition, 2017, with Paul Krugman and Marc Melitz) and Foundations of International Macroeconomics (1996, with Kenneth Rogoff). In addition, he has written, co-authored, or edited more than a hundred research articles and books on exchange rates, currency and other financial crises, global capital markets, and monetary policy. 

Obstfeld earned his PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and holds degrees in mathematics from the University of Pennsylvania and King's College, Cambridge University.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns by Maurice Obstfeld using the following links:


Lucas Papademos

Lucas Papademos is Chair in Economic Sciences and former President of the Academy of Athens. He is also Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of Athens. 

He served as Prime Minister of Greece from November 2011 to May 2012, leading a government of national unity during a critical phase of the Greek debt and economic crisis.

Previously, he was the Vice-President of the European Central Bank from 2002 to 2010 and Governor of the Bank of Greece from 1994 to 2002. Before being appointed Governor, he held several senior positions at the Bank of Greece, including those of Chief Economist (1985-1993) and Deputy Governor. 

Lucas Papademos has been on the faculty of Columbia University (1975-1984), the University of Athens (1988-2014), and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (2011, 2013), where he taught courses on international macroeconomics, central banking and the global financial crisis. He has served as a member of many boards, councils and committees, including the Executive Board and the Governing Council of the ECB, the G20 Financial Stability Board and its Steering Committee, the EU Economic and Financial Committee and the Central Bank Governance Group at the Bank for International Settlements.

In addition to numerous policy papers, Lucas Papademos has published articles in the fields of macroeconomics, financial markets and monetary policy in a wide range of academic journals, such as Economic Theory, European Economic Review and Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. He has also edited and co-edited several books, e.g. Enhancing Monetary Analysis (2010, with Jürgen Stark); Monetary Policy, Banking Union and Economic Growth: Challenges for Europe in the Wake of the Crisis (2017). He holds an S.B. in physics, an S.M. in electrical engineering, and a Ph.D. in economics, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

You can find VoxEU videos by Lucas Papademos using the following link:

Adam Posen


Adam S. Posen is president of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Under his leadership, since January 2013, the Institute has grown to 42 world-renowned fellows, raised its endowment by 50%, and won global recognition – including being named North American Economics Think Tank of the Year by Prospect three years in a row (2016, 2017, and 2018). The author, co-author, or editor of seven books, Posen has contributed to research and public policy in the areas of G20 monetary and fiscal policies, European economic integration since the euro, Japan’s recovery from its Great Recession, and China-US economic relations. From 2009 to 2012, Posen served as an external voting member of the Bank of England's rate-setting Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), where he was a leading voice globally for active policy response to the financial crisis. Posen has also served seven terms on the Panel of Economic Advisers to the US Congressional Budget Office (2005-19), and co-authored Inflation Targeting with Bernanke, Laubach, and Mishkin while at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1994-97). He received his BA and PhD from Harvard University.

You can find VoxEU contributions by Adam Posen using the following links:


Peter Praet

Peter Praet joined the European Central Bank as Member of the Executive Board from 2011-2019. He was responsible for the Directorate General Economics. Mr Praet gained a PhD. in economics from the Université libre de Bruxelles in 1980. He was an Economist at the International Monetary Fund from 1978 to 1980, Professor of Economics at the Université libre de Bruxelles from 1980 to 1987, Chief Economist of Générale de Banque and Fortis Bank from 1988 to 1999 and Chef de cabinet for the Belgian Minister of Finance from 1999 to 2000. Before joining the ECB, he was Executive Director of the Nationale Bank van België/Banque Nationale de Belgique from 2000 to 2011. Here, he was responsible for International Cooperation, Financial Stability and Oversight of Financial Infrastructures and Payments Systems. Between 2002 and 2011 he was also a member of the Management Committee of the Belgian Banking, Financial and Insurance Commission, where he was responsible for prudential policy for banking and insurance. 

Mr Praet has served on several high-level international bodies, including the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems, the Committee on the Global Financial System and the European Banking Authority. He was First Alternate of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements from 2000 to 2011.

You can find VoxEU articles by Peter Praet using the following link:

Lucrezia Reichlin


Lucrezia Reichlin is Professor of Economics at the London Business School and chairman and co-founder of Now-Casting Economics. She is Non-Executive Director at Unicredit Banking Group and AGEAS insurance group.

She served as Director General of Research at the ECB (March 2005 to September 2008). She has contributed to CEPR as Research Director, co-founder and scientist in charge of the Euro Area Business Cycle Network (EABCN) and the first Chair of CEPR's Business Cycle Dating Committee (now member). She is Chair of the Scientific Council at Bruegel and a member of scientific advisory boards for a number of institutions.

Having received her PhD in Economics from New York University, she has published numerous papers on econometrics and macroeconomics. Her papers have appeared in the American Economic Review, Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economics and Statistics, and Journal of the American Statistical Association. She is a Fellow of the British Academy, a Research Fellow and Trustee of CEPR and a Research Fellow of the European Economic Association.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as VoxEU columns and videos by Lucrezia Reichlin using the following links:


Christina Romer

Christina Romer is the Class of 1957-Garff B. Wilson Professor of Economics. She joined the Berkeley faculty in 1988 and was promoted to full professor in 1993. Professor Romer is co-director of the Program in Monetary Economics at the National Bureau of Economic Research, and is a member of the NBER Business Cycle Dating Committee. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at the University of California, Berkeley. She has received a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship, the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, and an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship. She has served as vice president and a member of the executive committee of the American Economic Association. Prior to her appointment at Berkeley, she was an assistant professor of economics and public affairs at Princeton University from 1985-1988. She received her Ph.D. from M.I.T. in 1985.

Minouche Shafik


An economist by training, Dame Minouche Shafik has spent most of her career straddling the worlds of public policy and academia. After completing her BSc in economics and politics at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, she took an MSc in economics at LSE before completing a DPhil in economics at St Antony’s College at the University of Oxford.  

Minouche’s early research focused on the determinants of investment, the environment and economic growth, the economies of the Middle East and North Africa, trade and migration. 

She taught at both Georgetown University and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. During her 15 years at the World Bank, Minouche worked on its first ever World Development Report on the environment, designed reform programmes for transition countries in Eastern Europe, and developed proposals for economic integration in support of the Oslo peace process in the Middle East. 

She became the youngest vice-president in the history of the World Bank at the age of 36. Minouche returned to the UK in 2004 and rose to become the Permanent Secretary of the Department for International Development where she was responsible for the UK’s development assistance efforts around the world. 

She joined the IMF in 2011 as Deputy Managing Director with responsibility for many of the crisis countries in the Eurozone and the Arab countries in transition. She also oversaw the IMF’s university which trains thousands of government officials each year, and was responsible for human resources and an administrative budget of $1 billion. 

From 2014-2017 she was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England, responsible for a balance sheet of almost £475 billion, and sat on all of the Bank’s major policy committees (the Monetary Policy Committee, Financial Policy Committee, and Prudential Policy Committee). She also led the Fair and Effective Markets Review which put in place a set of reforms to tackle misconduct in financial markets.  

Minouche currently serves as a Trustee of the British Museum, the Council of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Governor of the National Institute for Economic and Social Research, and is Honorary Fellow of St. Antony’s College Oxford. 

She holds honorary doctorates from the University of Warwick, the University of Reading, and Glasgow University. She was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire in the Queen’s New Year’s Honours list in 2015.

You can find VoxEU columns, podcasts and videos by Minouche Shafik using the following links:


Jean-Claude Trichet

Jean‐Claude Trichet is chairperson of the Board of Directors of Bruegel. He is chairman of the Group of Thirty (Washington), European Chairman of the Trilateral Commission and President of SOGEPA (Société de Gestion des Participations aéronautiques) (Paris). He is a member of the « Institut de France » (Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques). 

Born in Lyon, Jean‐Claude Trichet is an honorary Inspecteur général des Finances and Ingénieur civil des Mines.He is a graduate of the Ecole nationale supérieure des Mines de Nancy, of the Institut d’études politiques de Paris, of the Université de Paris (in economics) and of the Ecole nationale d’administration. He worked in the competitive sector from 1966 to 1968. He was appointed to the Inspection générale des Finances in 1971. 

He was assigned to various posts at the Ministry of Finance in the General Inspectorate of Finance and later in the Treasury Department, where in 1976 he became Secretary General of the Interministerial Committee for Improving Industrial Structures (CIASI). 

Jean‐Claude Trichet was made an adviser to the cabinet of the Minister of Economic Affairs in 1978, and then an adviser to the President of the Republic in the same year. In this capacity, he worked on issues relating to energy, industry, research and microeconomics from 1978 to 1981. He subsequently became Deputy Director of Bilateral Affairs at the Treasury Department from 1981 to 1984 and Head of International Affairs, also at the Treasury, and was Chairman of the Paris Club (sovereign debt rescheduling) from 1985 to 1993. In 1986 he directed the Private Office of the Minister of Economic Affairs, Finance and Privatisation. In 1987 he became Director of the Treasury. In the same year he was appointed Censor of the General Council of the Banque de France and Alternate Governor of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. He was Chairman of the European Monetary Committee from 1992 until his appointment as Governor of the Banque de France in 1993. He was the Chairman of the Monetary Policy Council of the Banque de France as of 1994, a member of the Council of the European Monetary Institute from 1994 to 1998 and thereafter a member of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank. At the end of his first term as Governor of the Banque de France, he was reappointed for a second term. 

Jean‐Claude Trichet was elected Chairman of the Group of Ten (G10) Governors on 29 June 2003. He was elected President of the “Global economy meeting” of Central Bank governors and President of the Group of Governors and heads of supervision (GHOS) in Basel (until October 2011). He was appointed President of the European Central Bank on 16 October 2003 by common accord of the Governments of the Member States that have adopted the euro at the level of Heads of State or Government for a term of office of eight years starting on 1 November 2003 and ending 31 October 2011. Since late 2010 and until end of October 2011, Mr Trichet has also been Chairman of the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). 

He was named “Person of the Year” by the Financial Times (2007), “Policymaker of the Year” twice by The International Economy magazine (1991 and 2007), and has received a number of awards, including the “Zerilli Marimo” prize from the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques (1999), the international “Pico della Mirandola” prize (2002), the “Prix franco‐allemand de la Culture/Deutsch‐Französischer Kulturpreis” (2006) and the “Ludwig Erhard Memorial Coin in Gold” (2007). He was also named “Central Banker of the Year” by The Banker (2008), “European Banker of the Year 2007” by The Group of 20 + 1 (2008), and “Central Bank Governor of the Year 2008” by Euromoney. He was awarded the 2011 International Charlemagne Prize of Aachen for his contribution to European unity and also received the 2011 Global Economy Prize from the Kiel Institute for the World Economy. He has been awarded honorary doctorates by the universities of Liège, Stirling, Montréal, Tel Aviv, Bologne and Sofia. Jean‐Claude Trichet is a Commandeur de la Légion d’honneur and a Commander of the National Orders of Merit in Austria, Belgium and Portugal. He has received the Commander’s Cross with star of the Order of Merit (Poland), the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange‐Nassau (the Netherlands) and the Grand Cross 1st class of the Order of Merit (Germany). He has also received honors from Argentina, Brazil, Côte d’Ivoire and Ecuador. 

Axel Weber


Axel A. Weber was elected to the Board of Directors (BoD) of UBS AG at the 2012 AGM and of UBS Group AG in November 2014. He is Chairman of the BoD of both UBS AG and UBS Group AG. He has chaired the Governance and Nominating Committee since 2012 and became Chairperson of the Corporate Culture and Responsibility Committee in 2013. Mr. Weber was president of the German Bundesbank between 2004 and 2011, during which time he also served as a member of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank, as a member of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements, as German governor of the International Monetary Fund, and as a member of the G7 and G20 Ministers and Governors. He was a member of the steering committees of the European Systemic Risk Board in 2011 and the Financial Stability Board from 2010 to 2011. From 2002 to 2004, Mr. Weber served as a member of the German Council of Economic Experts. His academic career encompasses professorships in international economics, monetary economics and economic theory at the universities of Cologne, Frankfurt am Main, Bonn and Chicago. Mr. Weber holds a master’s degree in economics from the University of Constance and a PhD in economics from the University of Siegen, where he also received his habilitation. He holds honorary doctorates from the universities of Duisburg-Essen and Constance.

You can find CEPR Discussion Papers as well as a VoxEU podcast by Axel Weber using the following links: